Immune control in colorectal cancer: Some good signs have been found from a study regarding the treatment of cancer. A recent research has found out why immune checkpoint resistance does not work in some types of colorectal cancer and what can be a strategy to deal with such resistances. ? According to a news report published in Dainik Jagran newspaper, immune checkpoint resistance has revolutionized the treatment of cancer in terms of immune response against tumor cells. Whereas in many patients, especially those with colorectal (intestine and rectal) cancer, the drug does not have an adequate effect. This study, led by researchers from MGS (Massachusetts General Hospital) and University of Geneva (UNIGE), has been published in the journal PNAS.
It is further written in this report that the director of EL Steel Laboratories for Tumor Biology at MGH and the author of this research, Dr Rakesh K Jain and radiation at Harvard Medical School. Oncology Professor Andrew Work Cook said that liver metastasis is a major cause of death in colorectal cancer patients. Meaning the cancer has spread to the liver.
what was the result
Dai Fukumura, the co-writer of this research, says that we found that in the case of colorectal cancer in the mice model study, the immune checkpoint inhibitors behaved similarly to the patients. The results revealed how the environment in which cancer cells grow could affect the effectiveness of immunotherapy. Also, the most important indication was that this model can be used in the study of working resistance of immune checkpoints, because more or less the same situation occurs in patients with colorectal cancer.
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To investigate how liver metastasis responds to immune checkpoint blocking, Jain and co-workers injected a structure of immune cells into the skin of mice liver metastases. compared to colorectal cancer cells. It found that liver metastases lacked certain immune cells, called dendritic cells, and were important in activating other immune cells (cytotoxic T lymphocytes). These cytotoxic T lymphocytes can kill cancer cells. The same situation was observed in liver metastases from patients that lacked denditic cells and activated T lymphocytes.
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When researchers increased the number of dendritic cells through a specific process in liver metastasis, they also found an increase in cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the tumor and the tumor became more sensitive to immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Used to understand discrepancy
Dr Rakesh Jain says that when colorectal cancer spreads to the liver, in most such cases the immune checkpoint resistance response is no longer effective. But when the research team injected colorectal cancer cells into the skin of the back of the mice, the immune checkpoint resistance response was good, whereas this is not seen in patients. Researchers injected cancer cells into the intestine and liver to understand this discrepancy.
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